Sports are played to increase physical fitness and stamina. It has been argued that the modern development of sports can be traced back to the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. German and Scandinavian innovators Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts Muths and Per Henrik Ling developed gymnastic exercise systems which were adopted by school systems in Britain, the United States, Japan, and other countries. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, gymnastics spread across eastern Europe, where it became a way of life for ethnically repressed groups and a source of nationalistic fervor.
The concept of a sports record first emerged during the Restoration era. Puritans had disapproved of traditional pastimes, driving them underground. The Marylebone Cricket Club, founded in 1787, helped organize games and rationalize competition. In this period, sports such as cricket began to develop. In this time, competition between players was governed by rules and resulted in a series of championships.
Michael Brown defines sport as any competitive activity that involves physical activity. This definition excludes track and field competitions, gymnastics, ice events, tennis, and golf. Nonetheless, it does not eliminate other activities, such as archery and markmanship. Regardless of the form of sport, the competition can improve a player’s physical fitness, mental state, and skills.
In addition to promoting physical fitness, playing sports can help build confidence and self-esteem. Students who participate in sports activities can also learn how to be flexible and learn to deal with setbacks with grace. They can learn to handle situations with humility and focus, and be more effective at problem solving, which can ultimately lead to success.